Thursday, 26 February 2015

Kiran Meena* and Pamil Tayal receive Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Research Award- 2015 in Bioprocess Technology

Kiran Meena* and Pamil Tayal receive Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Research Award- 2015 in Bioprocess Technology

27 February, 2015, India, USA NEWS CORP

The Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Research Award- 2015 goes to Kiran Meena* and Pamil Tayal from India. This is an excellent global opportunity to recognize the meritorious efforts by individual and organization. The research findings were published on world’s prestigious International Journal of Medicinal Plants. Artemisia annua is an annual herb, known for its antimalarial drug – artemisinin. The drug is used in combination with its derivatives to prevent the emergence of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Artemisinin is synthesized through mevalonate pathway in cytosol or methylerythritol phosphate pathway in the plastids and gets accumulated as a secondary metabolite in glandular trichomes. Low yield of drug is recovered using hydrocarbons from the leaves. However due to the emerging malarial cases worldwide, the commercial yield of the drug needs to be enhanced. Various modern technological practices such as semi-synthetic production of artemisinin using microbes (yeast), in vitro propagation of A. annua, selecting high artemisinin producing varieties and use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi during cultivation are used now-a-days accounting for increments in the drug production. The review highlights the molecular mechanism of action of antimalarial drug and methods to enhance its concentration in plant parts in vivo as well as in vitro. It is proposed that biologists should focus on an integrated approach for enhancement and effective utilization of the drug. The review highlights the synthesis of antimalarial compound in different plants belonging to different genera. The biosynthetic pathways have been explored in Artemisia annua for designing antimalarial combined therapies along with the production of artemisinin derivatives. The work emphasizes on the mechanism of action of artemisinin against Plasmodium falciparum. The review collectively demonstrates the current scenario of production and ways to enhance the concentration of antimalarial drug. It was suggested to future researchers to look for an integrated approach for drug enhancement and recovery with simultaneous curtailment in the cost. Artemisinin drug extracted from Artemisia annua is used extensively to cure endemic disease - malaria in Asia. In spite of this, the cultivation of the plant is not widespread. Also, limited extraction procedures with low drug yields are followed till date that further adds in plant exploitation. In the last decade, although the researchers have defined ways to enhance the drug yields but the cost management has been neglected. The review states the different approaches which can be combined together to improve the drug quality and quantity as well as minimize the cost. As the review shows all the available methods and approaches for drug extraction and its enhancement, it is recommended to agribusiness companies and research followers to cultivate the plant on a large scale to meet the growing demands of antimalarial drug. Also, better drug extraction procedures with cost effective measure should be laid down. Meena K. has collected the data and Tayal P. has drafted the manuscript. Both authors have discussed, revised and commented on the manuscript at all stages. The authors certify that this manuscript is original and has been written by stated authors. Authors declare that they have no conflict or competing interests. Authors are highly thankful to Shivam Gupta for bringing the proposal of the review. The authors are thankful to University of Delhi for providing financial assistance.
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