Saturday, 12 March 2016

Australian Journals


Sixteen (16) rats’ age and sex matched were randomly distributed into four (4) groups, each group consisting of four (4) animals each and one group served as control. Actinomycosis Journal The animals were fed for a period of twenty eight days, after which they were sacrificed and serum collected from their blood for serum lipid profile estimation. The mean serum concentration of total cholesterol (TC), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerol (TAG) were estimated and probability value taken at (p<0 .05="" i="">). The increase in the serum concentration of TAGs, LDL and decrease in HDL, gives a clear indication that castor seed is not good dietary item.
-dysentery effects of uncooked milled, fermented maize (known as “ogi” in Southwestern Nigeria), were investigated in Escherichia coli infected albino rats. “Ogi” was prepared by fermentation of white maize grains for 5 days; wet milled, sieved and allowed to settle for 24 hours. African Sleeping Sickness Journal Dysentery was precipitated in albino rats by infection with the pure culture of E. coli. Frequency of blood stool was determined by counting fecal spots on absorbent paper before and after treatment with “ogi”. Physicochemical analysis of “ogi”, comprising titratable acidity, pH 0 and phytochemical screening, was also carried out.
Phytotherapy is considered to be lowest lethal or has no side effects in contrast to current allopathic medicines. The intention of the present investigation was to assess the therapeutic efficacy of Nephelium longan extract in an animal model of diabetes.
Agent out there selling ISBN Nos. / UBN So in this research we have performed phytochemical screening of methanolic extracts of peel (MNLP)
and seeds (MNLS) of N. longan along with their hypoglycemic study in 18 h fasted normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats.
Dose-dependent therapeutic potency against dysentery has been manifested by “ogi”, most likely aided by its high acidity, presence of lactic acid bacteria and their secondary metabolities, as well as the phytochemicals present in “ogi”. Amebiasis Journal This could be a very simple and cheap solution to the ravaging problem of dysentery in poor families of many developing countries.
Diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, high LDL-Cholesterol, low HDL-Cholesterol are risk factors of Myocardial Infarction (MI). Our study intends to find the isolated effect of cigarette smoking, alcohol and dietary habits on lipid profile in a non diabetic, non hypertensive MI. American Journal of Molecular Serum lipid parameters were estimated in thirty five cases of non diabetic, non hypertensive MI patients and forty age and sex matched normal controls.     Biology and Genetics
Free radical induced oxidative stress and modification in LDL cholesterol play a major role in the pathophysiology of AMI. Anal Cancer Journal This study evaluated the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis and course of AMI with different risk factors. The markers of oxidative stress in 300 AMI patients and in 100 sex and age matched control subjects were estimated.
The present study aimed to assess urinary enzymes in diabetic nephropathy and correlate the changes in enzymes with albuminuria. Anaplasmosis Journal Urinary levels of enzymes alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were assayed in normal healthy controls (group-I), normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients without complications (group-II) and type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria (group IIIa), and macroalbuminuric type 2 diabetic nephropathy patients (group-IIIb).
The red fluorescent protein (RFP) from the silkworm are know   act as antiviral molecule in the midgut of B. mori. The antiviral protein RFPPM1 present in
the gut juice of multivoltine Pure Mysore (PM) silkworm was purified Anatomy, Physiology & Health Education Syllabus . In our previous study we showed that the RFPPM1 possesses strong antinucleopolyhedrovirus (antiNPV) activity through bioassay.
Aspirin
administration caused a significant increase in serum
malondialdehyde, serum alkaline phosphatase activity
and nitric oxide level. Reduced glutathione level,
erythrocyte Superoxide dismutase and plasma catalase
activities were significantly decreased compared to
healthy control group.
Anthrax Journal Total titrable acidity, ulcer index,
ulceration percent and ulcer score were significantly
increased in ulcer control group while mucosal thickness
and relative weight of stomach were significantly
decreased in ulcer control group compared to healthy
control group.
Snow mountain garlic found in high altitudes of
Himalayan region also has high medicinal value as
garlic. In present study a comparison was made between
garlic and SMG for the presence of phenolics and
flavonoids in methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts.
In garlic, the highest amount of phenolics were observed
in methanolic extract (11.27±0.003mg GAE/g), while in
SMG, the aqueous extract has the highest amount of
phenolic compounds (10.008±0.001mg GAE/g).
flavonoid concentration was highest in chloroform
extract in both garlic and SMG.
Urinary ALP, GGT and LDH were significantly higher in diabetic patients when compared to controls.Antibiotics Most pronounced increase in urinary enzymes was observed in macroalbuminuric diabetic nephropathy patients, followed by microalbuminuric diabetic nephropathy patients and normoalbuminuric diabetic patients. Urinary enzymes serve as sensitive indicators of renal function in early stages of diabetic nephropathy.
Antioxidant activity of
different extracts using FRAP assay indicated that both
in garlic and SMG, the highest antioxidant activity was
observed in the aqueous extract. This antioxidant activity
is due to organo sulphur compounds present in the plants.
Regarding the antimicrobial activity, the highest zone of
inhibition was observed in garlic in the chloroform
extract as compared to methanol extract against Bacillus
subtilis.
Antibiotics Conference Whereas, against the tested fungal strains the
highest zone of inhibition was observed only in SMG
against Bipolaris in methanolic extractThus, the
presence of active antimicrobial activity along with the
phytochemical substances provides both these plants a
significant basis for their use in ethnomedicine.
The relative molecular weight of RFPPM1 was determined using SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS. The amount of chlorophyll derivative methyl chlorophyllide in each mg of RFPPM1 expressed in terms of µmoles. Antimicrobial Resistance and Chemotherapy The present investigations throw light on function of RFPPM1 and its antiNPV behaviour attributed to a kinase activity involved in neutralising the NPV.
The red fluorescent protein (RFP) from the silkworm
are know act as antiviral molecule in the midgut of
B. mori. The antiviral protein RFPPM1 present in
the gut juice of multivoltine Pure Mysore (PM)
silkworm was purified.
Antimicrobial resistance Key Facts In our previous study we
showed that the RFPPM1 possesses strong
antinucleopolyhedrovirus (antiNPV) activity through
bioassay.
A total of 100 isolates from clinical sources (Stool),
were taken from populations of Kapoty village which
is fishermen village around polluted Lake Manzala.
The study revealed 16% of the total isolates, related
to Aeromonas sobria, which showed highly
heamolytic and Cytotoxic activities.
sobria showed different resistance pattern to
different antibiotics, such as, cefotaxime,
chloramphenicol, streptomycin, ampicillin,
tetracycline and Penicillin G. 8 strains of A. sobria
only harbored small and large plasmids, DNA
fingerprinting revealed variation in genotype of such
clinical strains of A. sobria.
This study aims to characterization of
pathogenic strains of Aeromonas sobria isolated
from clinical samples of Lake Manzala area.Application Form for allotment of ISBN / UBN These human
pathogens could be causative agents of the
increased diarrheal and gastrointestinal cases
among populations around the polluted Lake
Manzala.
The relative molecular weight
of RFPPM1 was determined using SDS-PAGE and
MALDI-TOF-MS. The amount of chlorophyll
derivative methyl chlorophyllide in each mg of
RFPPM1 expressed in terms of μmoles.
present investigations throw light on function of
RFPPM1 and its antiNPV behaviour attributed to a
kinase activity involved in neutralising the NPV.
Biosorption for elimination of heavy metals is
gaining much importance using microorganisms.
This work was aimed at in-vitro elimination of lead
and cadmium by using algae Cladophora
fasicularis, Valoniopsis pachynema and elimination
of copper and cadmium by fungi Aspergellus niger,
Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae.
Applying for ISBN / UBN Biosorption of lead, copper and cadmium by both
were tested at 5 different initial concentrations
ranging from 20 ppm to 100 ppm.
Curcumin is reported to
produce chromosomal aberration and genotoxicity.
Because of the poor bioavailability of Curcumin, it is
expected to find out an alternate from the plant
source itself to increase the bioavailability.  Ascariasis Journal
At the
same time presence of other constituents in the
plant, extract could able to protect the cells from
genotoxicity effect.
In present investigation, the active bud sprouts of
the mulberry genotype BC2-59 was treated with
chemical mutagen EMS (0.1% and 0.3%)
intermittently for twelve hours,to study the biological
effects of EMS on total genomic DNA through
RAPD analysis.  Aspergillosis Journal
Ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) is
a mutagenic, teratogenic, and possibly carcinogenic
organic compound with formula C3H8O3S.
Analysis of RAPD revealed
genetic variation between control and EMS induced
clones. Mutants screened 0.3% showed higher
levels of genetic variation and more unique alleles
against the control due to EMS induced mutations.
 AuthorHouse Self Publishing These mutations affected the gross morphological
characters in the mutant clones of mulberry
genotype BC2-59.
The results obtained in this
study indicated the highest adsorption ability of
Cladophora fasicularis for Cd at 40 mg/L. While
maximum pb sequestration was observed in V.
pachynema at 60 mg/L.  Babesiosis Journal  For fungi the highest
adsorption ability of Aspergellius awamori for Cu is
at 20 mg/L. While maximum Cd sequestration was
observed in Aspergellius niger at 20 mg/L. A batch
reactor was designed and optimized work was
considered at different variations such as pH
variations, time contact, temperature variations and
biomass with and without treatment.
EMS is found to be more effective and safe for
The M1Vbeneficial variant clones
obtained from 0.3% concentrations of EMS
treatment, revealed polymorphs of significantly
variable size of different base pairs for two random
primers used (OPW- 04/05), thus indicating
probable changes in the molecular characters of
total genomic DNA.
Aspirin administration significantly
decreased the level of hemoglobin, red blood cells and
platelets counts but increased the level of white blood
cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes counts.
of green banana and red apple at the tested doses by
healthy and ulcerated rats resulted in a significant
decrease in oxidative biomarkers and significant
improvement in antioxidants levels; complete blood
picture, total titrable acidity, ulcer index, ulceration
percent and ulcer score as well as mucosal thickness and
relative weight of stomach as compared with ulcerated
rats.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a life
threatening infection causes acquired
immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans.
Biopharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics Journal However, due to the versatile nature of
the target enzymes, there is a pressing need to
discover novel, potent drugs against HIV.
Rhizomatic accumulation of the pharmacologically important active metabolite in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is gingerols derived from the
phenylpropanoid pathway; of these 6-gingerol is recognized as the most medicinally important compound.  Bladder Cancer Journal Till date no molecular marker has been established for this compound in Zingiber officinale plants. For the documentation and evaluation of wild landraces of this species we have evaluated genetic variability of some (fifteen) wild landraces of Z. officinale through Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) method of DNA fingerprinting.
Level of LDL, HDL, TAGs and Cholesterols in blood serum serves as markers to determine cardiovascular status. Blastomycosis Journal Castor seeds are used as seasonings in food as it improves taste. The study was designed to possibly investigate the effect of castor oil seed at different level of dietary incorporations on cardiovascular status using Wistar Albino Rats.
884 ligands with similar properties
were tested for their affinity towards target enzyme
and finally 39 hits were reported based on dock
scores, affinity and mode of interactions.  Botulism Journal
This work
supports the fact that computational analysis would
definitely reduce time to reach the correct target as
the methods are validated and reproducible.
Brain Cancer Journal However, experimental evaluation of top hits would
reveal true compounds that might offer a new
scaffold as anti-HIV agents.
 In our study 837 alleles are generated through use of seven pair of primer pairs; among these 781(93.3%) alleles are polymorphic and 56 (6.7%) alleles are monomorphic.
 Cluster analysis based on Jaccard’s similarity coefficient using UPGMA differentiated the population into three major groups showing correlation with 6-gingerol content.
 Multiple regression analysis (MRA) identified four alleles as medicinal trait (6-gingerol) related AFLP markers; of these 149 base pair allele generated by primer pair EcoRI-AAG / MseI-CTG showed maximum (R2=0.985) positive correlation with 6-gingerol content at the highly significant level (p<0 .01="" t="13.243).</span">
 This AFLP marker for 6-gingerol content would be useful for identifying superior genotypes from the wild.
 Since ancient times the Zingiberaceae group of plants have been recognized as medicinally valuable. Reference of these plants is found in traditional and folk medicine systems of India and China (Sivarajan and Balachandran, 1994).
 In addition to the large number of genotypes presently under cultivation, a large number of land races of Z. officinale are found growing in the wild; some of these are used by the local population.
Case Report in Biomedical Engineering During the last two decades, DNA-based molecular markers associated with traits of importance have been extensively studied.
Case Report in Biostatistics In this era of pollution fresh water algae can be used as an effective low cost and most importantly non polluting biofertiliser.The following experiment can be substantiate the above fact.The extracts of two species like Anabaena sp and Oscillatoria sp were prepared in different concentrations like 1%, 5%, 10% , 25% respectively. Seeds of Pisum sativum were soaked in these concentrations of Oscillatoria extract separately and some were soaked in these concentrations of Anabaena extract separately for 24 hours Similarly seeds of Cicer arietinum were soaked aforementioned concentrations of both Oscillatoria sp and Anabaena sp. separately.
Case Report in Cardiology It was observed that the germination,root length ,shoot lenth lateral roots ,chlorophyll content ,leaf length, leaf width of both the plants i.e Cicer arietinum, Pisum sativum were heighest, when they were soaked in the highest concentration of algal extract i.e 25% of those algae as compared to the lower concentrations of algal extracts was also noted that the growth of both the plants were higher in the presence of Anabaena extract in comparison to Oscillatoria extract.
Case Report in Dietetics Cell culture has become one of the major tools used in the life science today. Some of the rising pitches where cell culture plays key role include: model systems, toxicity testing, cancer research, virology, cell based manufacturing, genetic counseling, genetic engineering, gene therapy, drug screening and development.
Case Report in Nursing This review is designed to serve as a basic primer to cell culture and basic starter for those who want better understanding of the key concepts and terminology in this interesting and rapidly growing field.

Case Report in Pain Medicine Fly ash from National Aluminium Company(NALCO) Captive power plant, Angul, Odisha (India) was used to reclaim fly ash using blue green alga BGA (Lyngbya sp.) for the study of their effects on growth, flowering  and seed development of Helianthus annus(sun flower plant).
Case Report in Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management The reclaimed fly-ash was prepared by using a cyanobacteria Lyngbya sp.  as carrier material. Different concentration (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50%) of fly ash/reclaimed fly ash was taken and their effect on plant growth parameters (% of germination, radical & plumule growth, shoot &root length, leaf length &width, Chlorophyll a & b, carotenoid) were studied. Results indicate that 50% of reclaimed fly ash &20% of un-reclaimed fly ash in soil could be used safely for better plant growth
Case Report in Transplant Research and Risk Management In the present study microorganisms producing beta-galactosidase enzyme were isolated from fermented millets mixture. Three bacterial isolate C2, C4, Y were found to be Gram positive bacilli, Gram negative cocobacili, Gram positive bacilli respectively while isolate SC2 was found to be yeast. These bacterial isolates were identified using various biochemical tests Growth study kinetics of microbial isolates was performed and the optimum pH and temperature was found.  Beta-galactosidase enzyme was extracted and the effect of pH, temperature, substrate variation and incubation period on enzyme activity was studied.
Case Report in Vaccine: Development and Therapy The activity of beta-galactosidase for all the microbial isolate increased with increase in temperature upto 37°C. Michaelis-Menten plot and Lineweaver Burk plot were constructed to calculate the Km and Vmax values. Immobilization of crude enzyme from the isolates was performed and enzyme activity using ONPG and lactose as a substrate was found.

 Anthropogenic activities like mining, processes of metallurgy and other chemical industries lead to the discharge of high amount of heavy metals into the environment that causes serious problems to human health.
Case Report in Veterinary Medicine This paper aimsto employ isolation of thermophilic organisms having capability of bioremedaition.Two different Thiobacillus species have been isolated from hot water spring of


Vajreshwari and Ganeshpuri, Thane, Maharashtra, INDIA. The mechanism involved in bioremediation includes production of specific protein as well as liberation of some extracellular polymeric compound (EPS) e.g. proteins, carbohydrate, acids etc. that are produced during the microbial cell metabolism. These compounds play an important role in the faster reduction of heavy metals.
Case Report in Virus Adaptation and Treatment The isolate was found to be of different species and strain, i.e. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans POPATNP, Thiobacillus acidophilus ABHAY. The sequences of the strain were deposited in NCBI database with accession number KM527210and KM527215 respectively.The result highlights the potential use of these organism in bioremediation.Thermophilic bacteria are regarded as attractive production organisms for cost-efficient conversion of renewable resources to green chemicals, but their genetic accessibility is a major bottleneck in developing them into versatile platform organisms.
Cervical Cancer Journal In the present study, Cucumis anguria L is a medicinally and economically important plant and also used as vegetable. We established an Agrobacterium tumefaciens- mediated transformation procedure for Cucumis anguria. Leaf explants were incubated with A. tumefaciensstrain LBA4404 containing a binary vector pBAL2 carrying the reporter gene β-glucuronidase intron (GUS-INT) and the marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT-II).
Chagas Disease Journal Following co-cultivation, leaf explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 6.6 µM 2, 4-D combined with 3.3µM BAP containing 100 mg/l kanamycin and 300 mg/l carbenicillin. Kanamycin-resistant calluses were induced from the leaf explants after 3 weeks.

Chemistry of Natural Products Journal Shoot regeneration was achieved after transferring the calluses onto fresh selection medium 8.8 µM BAP and 2.2 µM 2,4-D. Transgenic shoots were excised from callus and elongated in MS medium fortified with 3.0 µM GA3,100 mg/l kanamycin and 300 mg/1 carbenicillin.
Chemistry of Natural Products Journal Finally, the shoots were rooted on MS basal medium supplemented with 3.0 µM IBA and 100 mg/l kanamycin. High transformation frequency was achieved by using 3-day-old precultured leaf explants. Further, the presence of acetosyringone (200 µM), infection of explants for 30 min and 3 days of cocultivation proved to be critical factors for greatly improving the transformation efficiency. Incorporation and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot analysis and GUS histochemical assay.
Chemotherapy Conference The tree of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. is a good source for
various secondary metabolites as tannins, saponins,
glycosides, triterpenes etc. The leaves of Ailanthus
exelsa Roxb. is a good source of proteins. The quantities
of soluble proteins were determined by Lowry method
and the percent quantities of proteins from leaves of
Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. at Mandsaur, District Mandsaur
and Ratlam, District Ratlam (Fig. 4) had varied.
percentage of quantities of Mandsaur, District Mandsaur
were 5.7748%, 5.800%, 5.8125%, 5.7874%, and
5.8251% while Ratlam, District Ratlam had 4.7251%,
4.7375%, 4.7500%, 4.7748% and 4.7624%. The S.Em.
value was 0.432705 and CD 5% value was 1.27648. The
datas showed the significant value. Thus, the leaves of
Ailanthus exelsa are valuable source of proteins.
Cholera Journal Aiming to identify the simple and effective techniques for enhancement of seed germination of Acacia nilotica L., The seeds were subjected to various pre-germination treatments, which includes
soaking the seeds in 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% KNO3 for 30 minutes, in Sulphuric acid for 5-20 minutes, prechilling at 40C for 3 days, with hot water (700C) for 5 minutes, with nitric acid and HCl treatment for 5, 15 and 25 minutes and similarly control with water.
Clinical Pharmacy & Drug Interactions Journal The results of this experimental data from the first day to last day (12th day) predicted by analysis of variance (ANOVA) for each treatment showed that maximum germination percentage was observed in seeds treated with sulphuric acid for 20 minutes and maximum mean germination time, maximum germination value and peak value were observed in seeds treated with sulphuric acid for 15 minutes.
Clinical Trials Journal Day to day observation of sulphuric acid treated seeds showed maximum germination rate with in initial 3 days of experiment, in comparison with other treatments which showed delayed response. Hence it can be concluded that the pre-germination treatment of A.nilotica L. seeds with sulphuric acid treatment is a better option for enhancement studies in this study.
Colon Cancer Journal Eomenacanthus (menopone) or bird lice is a serious problem affecting birds and it can severely effect the egg production in poultry.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Journal Although many chemicals such as DDT and pyrethrin can effectively act against menopone, they could impart serious health problems. In Kerala, the leaves of the plants, Premna latifolia  Roxb. and Lantana camara were found to be used by the villagers as an effective bio insecticide against bird lice.
Cysticercosis Journal The pharmacological activity of the medicinal plants mainly lies in the secondary metabolities which are comparatively smaller molecules in contrast to primary metabolites such as peptides, proteins and carbohydrates. So our aim was to investigate the chemical compounds present in the leaf extract of these two plants which are effective in acting against menopone. The revolutionary advances achieved in the field of chromatography and spectroscopy had made the isolation and structure elucidation more simple and reliable.
Diphtheria Journal Hyperlipidemia/ hyperlipoproteinemia, is the condition of abnormally elevated levels of any or all lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood. South Asian countries have a high prevalence of hyperlipidemia in line with their economic development.
Dispensing & Community Pharmacy Journal  In the face of increasing bacterial resistance to various antibiotics and continuous efforts to look for new and safer antibacterial substance. Lemon grass a well known herb that was widely used as a remedy for various ailments in traditional medicine. The Lemon grass had antimicrobial properties.
Dracunculiasis Journal The objective of this study was to assess the Lemon grass’s antimicrobial potential. The extract showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureusEscherichia coli and Salmonella typhi except Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. Thus, Lemon grass can be one of the substitutes over antibiotics against tested pathogens.
Dracunculiasis Journal Present research will be a guiding path formulation of potent drug against life threatening pathogens. Identification of phyto-constituent will encourage drug designing with novel mechanism of action.
Drug-resistant malaria: Molecular mechanisms and Threats  Canarium odontophyllum Miq. as one of the underutilized fruits grown in peat soil   are consumed by the local community in Sarawak and as such, could posed health problem due to its high content of mineral and heavy metals.
Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever Journal The present study therefore, was objectively done to identify the level of the toxic metals and trace elements in C. odontophyllum fruit using inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The trace element found in highest concentration was molybdenum at 38.22 ppm whereas magnesium and calcium were the nutritionally important elements found in considerably high level of 32.93 ppm and 24.66 ppm respectively. The rest of the thirteen elements were either not detected or found within low level.
Echinococcosis Journal Despite the low arsenic level at 0.015 ppm, Pb and Cd were the heavy metals not detected in C. odontophyllum fruit. As conclusion, C. odontophyllum fruit has huge potential to be a rich source of nutritional trace elements with either very low or undetectable level of non-essential trace elements and toxic metals. This finding provides awareness of the safety consumption of this underexploited fruit and future prospect should focus on developing the fruit of Canarium odontophyllum as supplement in diseases of mineral deficiency.
Eye Cancer Journal Oxidative stress plays a major role in biochemical and pathological changes associated with myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI). Lip Cancer Journal The need to specify agents with a potential for preventing such damage with therapeutic importance. In the present study, chronic oral
administration of Mimosa pudica plant extract on oxidative stress induced by ischemic-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart was investigated.
Foodborne Trematodiases Journal Mimosa pudica plant extract (125, 250, & 500 mg/kg once daily for 30 days) was administered orally in Wistar albino rats. Thereafter, hearts were isolated and subjected to IRI.
Gallbladder Cancer Journal Depletion of myocardial endogenous antioxidants and rise in TBARS were significantly less in the Mimosa pudica plant extract treated rat hearts. Oxidative stress induced cellular damage as indicated by patchy necrosis, inflammatory cells and marked interstitial edema in the muscle fibres were noted in Control –IR group but in M-500 group the absence of myonecrosis was observed.
Gastric Cancer Journal Since Mimosa pudica plant extract possess strong antioxidant activities in one of our earlier studies  followed by this study strongly suggests that protective therapeutic response in the same plant extract at the dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 30 days, hence the Mimosa pudica plant extract prevents oxidative stress and associated structural changes induced by myocardial ischemic- reperfusion injury.



International Journal of Helminthology The present study deals with certain Medicinal plants used by chenchu tribals in habiting the forests of Gundla Brahmeswaram (GBM) wildlife sanctuary.
International Journal of Medicinal Plants the observations revealed that out of the 150 species used by the tribe 21 belongs to critically endangered, 2 belongs to rare, 30 belongs to endangered and 22 belongs to near threatened categories as per IUCN categorization norms. The survey indicates that there is an urgent need for protection and conservation of these medicinal plants.
International Journal of Medicine The focus of the present study deals with the phytochemical analysis and detection of total phenolic and radical scavenging potentials of the solvent extracts from the leaves and flowers of Strobilanthes heyneanus Nees. (Acanthaceae), endemic to the Western Ghats, India.  Experimental:Phytochemical analysis was conducted for three solvent extracts viz., hexane, methanol and aqueous. The extracts were tested
for the presence of total phenolics and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity.
International Journal of Mining The leaf and flower extracts indicated the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids and terpenoids as phytoconstituents. High total phenolics were found in the aqueous extract of leaves (165 µg/ml), while the moderate phenolic content was detected in the aqueous (69 µg/ml) and methanol extracts (62 µg/ml) of the flower. High radical scavenging activity was detected in the hexane and aqueous flower extracts (95 to 98%), while low activity was detected in the methanol extracts of both flowers and leaves
International Journal of Parkinson's Disease This study has demonstrated the potentials of S. heyneanus extracts as sources of phytochemicals. The aqueous extracts have depicted high phenolic and radical scavenging activity which suggests that these extracts could be subjected to fractionation by chromatographic techniques and the bioactive components be identified in future studies.
International Journal of Pharmacy Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) Jeffrey and Psoralea corylifolia L. are two medicinally important plants. D. palmatus belongs to family Cucurbitaceae and commonly known as Shivalingi and Lillipop plant etc. Seeds of D. palmatus show antiasthmatic, analgesic and anticonvulsant activities.
International Journal of Photocatalysis Seeds are used to treat asthma, bronchitis, cholera, colic, fever etc. Seeds of shivalingi are used against female infertility. A unique herbal preparation of seeds which is tonic for female helps in general debility. P. corylifolia belongs to family Fabaceae and is commonly known as babchi, bawchi, vakuchi etc. Seeds of P. corylifolia used in chronic, skin disease, scabies, psoriasis, ringworm and leucoderma.
International Journal of Proteomics Seed oil is extremely beneficial and used externally in numerous skin ailments. P. corylifolia also have economic value like making perfumes, preservative for pickles. Although these seeds very important however some fungi spoil these seeds. To study mycoflora of these seeds Agar plate method, blotter paper method and deep freezing method were used.
Intestinal Cancer Journal Anti bacterial activity of methanolic extracts of Madhuca indica was screened by agar Disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanolic extract exhibited significant antimicrobial activity of concentration of 100, 250, 500, 1000 µg/ml respectively against tested organisms, particularly more effective against gram – ve bacteria staphylococcus aureus and gram –ve bacteria Escherichia coli than the aqueous extract when compared to the standard drug (streptomycin).
Journal for Anthropology The identity of some of the aromatic fragrant wild flowering plants from Jordan, and their different potentials whether are used in traditional medicine, or as spices, or that can be used in aromatherapy, perfumery and cosmetics are reported. 
Journal for Archaeology Plant specimens are collected from different parts of the country, identified and voucher specimens are deposited at Amman herbarium (AMM!), University of Jordan. A number of 101 species of aromatic flowering plants belongs to 33 families and a number of 4 species of non-flowering plants of 3 families is also included.
Journal for Cancer The possible application for the potential of each aromatic plant species is recorded. The Latin scientific names, local Arabic names, parts used and purpose of use are presented.  A number of 63 selected Photographs for some of the recorded species are demonstrated. The plants are arranged in the text alphabetically according to their families.
Journal for Nephrology This work could be serving as scientific botanic, educational document and serving some of the economic and touristic goals in the blessing land of Jordan for its gifted plant natural biodiversity.

Journal for Nutrition  Withania somnifera (L) Dunal also known as Ashwagandha is a highly valuable medicinal plant whose roots are sought for various pharmacological properties. So, it has been exploited to meet the ever growing demand of the pharmaceutical industries.
Journal for Physiotherapy To relieve off this pressure there is a need to explore new areas where it can flourish. It is not found as wild population in the ecological condition of Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India. In
the present study both the wild and cultivated morphophyte were studied for their root morphology (root length, root diameter, no.of secondary roots/ plant) and root yield (fresh weight of root/ plant and dry weight of root / plant) in the control soil condition and also with the application of biofertilizers namely, cow dung, vermicompost and mixture of cow dung and vermicompost.
Journal for Spectroscopy The results revealed the wild morphophyte to be better adapted than the cultivated type and also an improvement in all the root morphological and yield traits with the application of cow dung and vermicompost mix to the soil .The environmental degradation due to chemical fertilizers is of great concern today. So, this study explores an ecofriendly way to establish Withania somnifera in the natural habitat of Hazaribag.
Journal Global Antimicrobial Resistance Cayratia pedata (Sanskrit: Suvaha, Gobhapadi, Malayalam: Veluttasorivalli, Tripadi) is an indigenous herb belonging to the family Vitaceae. This endangered medicinal plant of south India is a woody climber with cylindrical stem and grows mostly in tropical forests.
Journal of Agricultural Economics and Sustainable Development Traditionally, the leaf of this plant is being used in the treatment of ulcers and diarrhea in Ayurveda. The plant extract is a repository of phytochemicals like alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and terpenoids. Previous studies reported that the crude extracts of the plant has therapeutic implications as anti-microbial, anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-diarrheal and antinociceptive agents.
Journal of Antibiotics Digestive problems are mainly the result of present life style. These problems sometimes start from the infancy and become more prevalent as the age increases.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy For curing these problems Medicinal plants played an important role.These Medicinal plants have proved to be effective for prevention and cure of various disorders.
Journal of Antimicrobials Their use against digestive problems is very common at household level. Thus, the present study was undertaken to study the reasons for use and non- use of medicinal plants for digestive problems in Punjab which will be useful in improving present research. The data was collected personally from 240 women equally representing rural and urban population of three socio-cultural zones of Punjab state regarding sixteen medicinal plants documented under AICRP on Home Science in Punjab. The data were analyzed with the help of frequency distribution and percentages. Results of the study revealed that the reasons cited for the use of medicinal plants were that elders always used these, have no side effects, cost effective and easily available.
Journal of Bone and Joints Surgery The reasons stated for non-use were that allopathic medicines are easily available, time consuming preparation and quick relief with allopathic medicines.
Journal of Civil Engineering In the face of threats caused by both anthropogenic and
natural reasons, the question of the sustainability of
medicinal plants has emerged very strongly in recent
times. These plant resources, therefore, have become
important domains of intervention and are increasingly
attracting the attentions of public and private sector
policy researchers, policy makers and development
program implementers. In recognition of such
importance this paper is undertaken to focus on
important aspects of medicinal plants in Uttarakhand
associated with livelihood.
Journal of Diabetes and Health Markets for medicinal plants
in Uttarakhand are not in optimally ideal conditions due
to an awkwardly longer value chain entangled with many
constraints and weaknesses.
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Therefore, the research
examined production and management through
community participation of the villages by forming a task
team to work in Medicinal Plant Conservation Area
(MPCA). The study assessed the local perceptions of the
use and cultivation of medicinal plants and the need for
conservation of these plants, as well as the features of
already ongoing cultivation practices and options for
increased cultivation.
Journal of Enzymology In Homoeopathy the principal method of ascertaining the positive effects of drugs is Drug proving and confirming the proving symptoms by Clinical verification. In Homoeopathy, Poison Hemlock which is the common name of the medicine Conium maculatum is one such proved drug which is prepared from a plant of western origin named Conium maculatum L. and which has immense therapeutic values in treating Geriatric disorders.
Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer A clinical study on 35 male patients at OPD of D.N.De Homoeopathic Medical College & Hospital, Kolkata as well as by different experienced homoeopathic physicians was conducted for a period of 4 years to see the efficacy of Conium maculatum on Prostatic disorders which is one kind of Geriatric disorders.
Journal of Mechanical Engineering  The study finally concluded that Conium maculatum was very much effective on patients aged between 51-70 years suffering from prostatic disorders which clearly revealed its efficacy in treating Geriatric disorders.
Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials   The present study was carried out at R L Jalappa Hospital attached to Sri Deva Raj Urs Medical College, Tamaka, Kolar, after a written consent from all the participants. The study includes 520 non diabetic rural subjects, in which 294 were males and 226 were females. The anthropometric and biochemical parameters were estimated by standard methods.The WHO (World Health Organization) criteria were used for diagnostic life style risk factors forestimating the metabolic risk factors.
Journal of Planning and Architecture Higher mean WC (waist circumference) was observed in males than in females and it was statistically significant.Highly significant difference was found with respect to WHR (Waist hip Ratio) in males and females. Among the biochemical parameters, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins were significant.
Journal of Psychiatry The lifestyle variables like smoking,alcohol and tobacco chewing were showed significant difference between males and females. Females had higher risk compared to males. Measurers such as educational programs, screening and prevention need to be taken at the peripheral level.
Journal of Surgery Obesity is a positive risk factor in the development of type 2 Diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hypertension, which are linked more strongly to intra-abdominal and/or upper body fat than to overall adiposity.
Journal of Water Research The aim of present study is to assess the safety and efficacy of herbal formulation in patients of functional dyspepsia (FD) and to validate a classical formulation scientifically. Keeping this in mind a trial was conducted on 30 known cases of FD, with age group ranging from 15-65years.
Kaposi Sarcoma Journal The efficacy was assessed on VAS scale, FAAS score and FSSG scale. All the symptoms like pain, Post Parendal fullness (PPF), early satiation and Retrosternal burning (RSB), nausea and vomiting showed improvement.
Kidney Cancer Journal Statistical analysis was done and significant reduction (p<0.001) in mean symptom score was observed after 45 days of treatment with the test formulation. No adverse event was reported during the entire trial.
Leishmaniasis Journal Thus validating the formulation as highly effective in long as well as short term management of FD with maximum economic advantage. The drug regimen also lowers the anxiety disorders of the patients thus proving the anti-anxiolytic effect of the drug as well. This study provided a novel treatment plan for FD but need to be done on large sample size in future with a control group.
Leprosy Journal  The use of that medicine is age old practice in India. But the growth of Ayurvedic industry is not up to the mark in India. It has been observed that Ayurvedic medicine is far behind the allopathic medicine as the demand for the same is less.
Leukaemia Journal Only 28% of population prefer Ayurvedic medicine whereas more than 50% prefer allopathic treatment. The study further indicates that in order to promote innovation in this sector, it requires creation of demand by means of education campaign, awareness building etc. The present study also discovered that there is no sufficient legislative provision is available to promote Ayurvedic medicine. The present study highlights the need of creation of Ayurvedic hub as well as private participation in Ayurvedic research.

Lung Cancer Journal  The complexities and pressure of modern life are posing new threats to human health. Unani Medicine has strong historical and cultural roots in Pakistan.
Lyme Disease Journal More than 80% of the population relies on this system of medicine. This review contains published sources comprising information on the  historical aspect, Tibb in  Pakistan, Tibbi Education in Pakistan, Research in Materia Medica, including Single (Mufrad) and Compound (Murakkab) drugs, major and trace Elements in medicinal plants exhibiting their   biological role as well as a brief insight into the Clinical Research and Cultivation and Conservation of medicinal plants in Pakistan for the period of 1977-2012.
Lymphatic Filariasis Journal Probiotics is a treatment to control diarrhea in infants and children. Probiotics contain useful  
such as Lactobacillus and Bifido bacterium spp. in yogurts.
Lymphoma Journal These two bacteria play an important role controlling diarrhea. Probiotics also help in maintaining viable microbes mainly during gastro intestinal problems, liver diseases and also in irritable bowel syndrome. So,
Malaria Journal Probiotics may be defined as use of live microorganism which is beneficial to host. Probiotics also contains sometime strains of yeast for eg. Saccharomyces boulardii which has resulted in effective probiotic. Milk products mainly in fermented form are effective in curing diseases. It also helps in food allergies, and also helpful in curing colonic cancer.
Medicinal Chemistry Journal Despite the increased sophistication of annotation tools, enzyme acetylcholineesterase in Aedes aegypti remains in the realm of "hypothetical proteins" with little or no structural annotation associated with it.
Medicinal Chemistry Journal In the present study a systemic
investigation was undertaken to make use of multitemplate modeling for the prediction and validation of exact 3D structure of acetylcholineesterase enzyme in Aedes aegypti. Physicochemical properties were analysed by Protparam, 3D structure prediction was performed by multitemplate modelling method using modeller.
Melanoma Journal  The reliability assessment of generated model showed the structure quality is good and thus can be used to guide experimental designs.
Mental Health Journal The structural and functional studies of this protein in Aedes aegypti can confer clues for elucidating the functions of genes and proteins underlying specific processes and that can be used to improve vector control measures.
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Journal The objectives of the present study was to develop a bilayer floating sustained release matrix tablet of Zolmitriptan with biphasic release that increase the residence time in gastric fluid and improves its bioavailability.
Neglected Tropical Diseases Journal . Floating bilayer tablets having one immediate release layer and another sustained release layer were prepared using direct compression technique. Among all the IR layer formulations, ZIRF10 showed highest f2 value (57.84) and lowest f1 value (10.72) was considered as best formulation.
Neglected Tropical Diseases Journal Dry powder blends of all the formulations were evaluated for precompression parameters like angle of repose, Carr’s index and Hausner’s ratio and the results comply with pharmacopeia specification. The formulated tablet were characterized by weight variation, friability, hardness, swelling studies, in vitro release studies, in vitro release kinetic and FTIR and DSC analysis. DSC and FTIR analysis ensured compatibility between the drug and polymers used for formulations.
Nigerian Breast Research Journal The floating lag time, floating duration and swelling index of ZBFTF10 (optimized formulation) found as 21 second, 13 hour and 101.29 respectively. Out of all the formulation developed, formulation ZBFTF10 containing 23% of HPMC K100M and 10% of ethyl cellulose showed optimum in vitro drug release upto 99% at the end of 12 h. The kinetic of in vitro drug release profile of ZBFTF10 followed Pappas kinetic model (R2=0.995) having drug release mechanism as anomalous diffusion coupled with erosion (n=0.706). Accelerated stability studies of optimized formulation (ZBFTF10) showed a little change in physicochemical properties as well as drug release profiles at the end of 90 days indicating the stability of formulations.
Nigerian Journal for Anthropology The results of the current study clearly indicated a promising potential of the Zolmitriptan bilayer floating system as an alternative to the conventional dosage form as it released an initial loading dose that can be useful for acute migraine followed by maintenance dose as sustained release manner for better therapeutic benefits. However, further clinical studies are needed to assess the utility of this system for patients suffering from migraine.

Nigerian Journal for Archaeology The aim of the present investigation was development and in-vivo evaluation of buccoadhesive gel of an antidiabetic drug i.e., Glimepiride, and to maintain its bioavailability over an extended period of time and to circumvent the hepatic first pass effect. The buccoadhesive gels were prepared using carbopol, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, methyl cellulose and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose in different ratios.
Nigerian Journal for Automobile Engineering On the basis of in-vitro studies the formulations GCPH2 and GF16 were selected for in-vivo and stability studies. A maximum hypoglycaemic response was observed at 10 hr and thereafter remained stable up to 24 hr. The formulation GF16 was found stable after stability studies.
Nigerian Journal for Cancer DM mellitus has become a worldwide disease. Some local TMPs in Zimbabwe are reported to have hypoglycaemic effects on blood glucose and are used as herbal medicines to treat diabetes. A. stenophylla aqueous root extracts were freeze dried and examined for inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase on KAT reagents in the presence of sucrose and maltose substrates using acarbose as positive control.
Nigerian Journal for Cardiology The IC50 values for the plant extract and acarbose for α-glucosidase in the presence of the sucrose were 0.123 ± 0.009 mg/ml and 0.101± 0.0176 mg/ml respectively. The IC50 values in the presence of maltose were 0.500 ± 0.128 mg/ml and 0.117 ± 0.0563 mg/ml respectively. The plant extract and acarbose showed IC50 values against amylase of 1.26 ± 0.903 mg/ml and 1.199 ± 0.0651 mg/ml respectively.
Nigerian Journal for Cell Biology The plant extract displayed mixed type inhibition kinetics for α-glucosidase with sucrosereducing Vmax value of the enzyme from 0.214 to 0.0608 mmoles. min–1 whilst increasing  Km from 0.0124 to 0.0580. The results suggest A. stenophylla  possesses hypoglycaemic control in diabetes mellitus through inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes and its standardisation could transform herbal practice in treating diabetes.
Nigerian Journal for Dentistry Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae) is a common annual spreading herb found in a rice field throughout in India; five crude extracts were prepared from the whole plant Sphaeranthus
indicus using different solvents by Soxhlet method.
Nigerian Journal for Dermatology The extracts were subjected to screening to detect Preliminary phytochemical analysis and potential antimicrobial activity against E. ColiStaphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi and fungal strain Candida albicans as standard by agar well diffusion method. The aim of our present study was to find out the Preliminary photochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of the different extracts of entire plant including flower heads of Sphaeranthus indicus.
Nigerian Journal for Developmental Biology The different extracts such as Hexane, Methanol, Ethanol, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts exhibits comparable antimicrobial activity with the control.
Nigerian Journal for Endocrinology and Metabolism Presence of alkaloids and carbohydrate present in methanol extract, saponins are only present in distilled water and ethanol extract, phenolic compounds are only present in ethanolic extract while fixed oil and volatile oils are strongly present in all extract except in distilled water extract.
Nigerian Journal for Nephrology This review article discloses the issue of pharmaceutical technology transfer in developing countries that has generated and debated for many years. Given technology centrality to development, and technology acquisition necessity by developing countries for further development and benefit, it is desirable to generate, transfer and diffuse the best available pharmaceutical technology in these countries. Unfortunately, most of the world’s advanced technology is generated privately by transnational corporations, whose principal research and development activity is located in developed countries, creates an asymmetry between technology possession and technological need location.
Nigerian Journal for Nutrition There is a gap between the technology developed and owned by firms in developed countries and that can be obtained and utilized by developing countries. The main objective of this review article is to disclose the working procedure for technology transfer process in pharmaceutical industry in developing countries through taking an invention from its inception in a laboratory to a commercialized drug product and to highlight how technology is transferred, importance of technology transfer, reasons for technology transfer, factors influencing technology transfer: drivers and barriers, steps involved in   technology transfer and to identify policy approaches that might overcome those barriers.
Nigerian Journal for Physiotherapy The bark extract of Kumaun Himalayan gymnosperm Picea smithiana was assessed for its active principles. Flavonoids, terpenoid, tannins, alkaloids, saponin, glycosides, quinines, carbohydrates, protein, starch, resin, volatile oil, anthraquinone and phenol were found in both methanol and ethanol bark extracts.
Nigerian Journal for Spectroscopy The antibacterial potential of methanol and ethanol extracts of bark was investigated against Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Erwinia chrysanthemi and Xanthomonas phaseoli using disc diffusion method.
Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Sustainable Development The extracts were further evaluated for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Both methanol and ethanol extracts of P. smithiana bark were found effective by showing a mark zone of inhibition (ZOI).
Nigerian Journal of AIDS Methanol extract showed the highest inhibitory activity against A. tumefaciens (ZOI, 19 mm) while ethanol extract exhibited its highest activity for E. chrysanthemi (ZOI, 12 mm). The MIC and MBC values were recorded in the range 31.25-250 µg/ml and 62.5-500 µg/ml, respectively.
Nigerian Journal of Allergy and Immunology The lowest value of MIC and MBC were recorded against A. tumefaciens in methanol extract (31.25 µg/ml and 62.5 µg/ml respectively). The results of bark extracts were also compared with leaf extracts of P. smithiana for antimicrobial potential.
Nigerian Journal of Anesthesia India has a rich tradition of plant based knowledge of health care. Many drugs listed as modern medication are derived from plants. Ampelocissus latifolia is a large herbaceous climber commonly known as wild grapes.
Nigerian Journal of Antimicrobials In the view of its medicinal importance pharmacological studies were carried
out.
Nigerian Journal of Arthritis and Rheumatology The methanolic extracts of Ampelocissus latifolia leaf were screened for analgesic and antipyretic activity using hot plate method and yeast induced pyrexia methods in mice respectively.
Nigerian Journal of Asthma and Immunology The extract produced marked analgesic effect at dosses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg, observed with hot plate maintained at 550 C. The pain threshold was measured at different time interval.
Nigerian Journal of Autism The extract also produced a significant inhibition (P < 0.01, 0.05) in yeast induced pyrexia at 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg dosses. This analgesic and antipyretic effects were compared with standard drug aspirin.
Nigerian Journal of Biomedical Engineering The pharmacological results obtained from present study reveals that Ampelocissus latifolia leaf possesses potent analgesic and antipyretic activity and can be used as a substitute of synthetic drugs which are having side effects.
Nigerian Journal of Biophysics Warfarin is the mostly prescribed oral anticoagulant. Anticoagulation with warfarin requires careful management to avoid hemorrhage or thrombosis. Clinical pharmacists can play an important role in reducing warfarin-related adverse events as well as improving therapeutic outcomes.  
Nigerian Journal of Bone and Joints Surgery The purpose of this review was to evaluate the published literature on the effects of interventions by clinical pharmacists on therapeutic outcomes of warfarin as well as to assess the potential financial benefit of such interventions.
Nigerian Journal of Brain Research Potentially relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, Hinari, SCOPUS, Cochrane and Google scholar using the following key words: “warfarin clinic”, “clinical pharmacist”, or "anticoagulation clinic ". Both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs were considered.
Nigerian Journal of Brain Research Clinical pharmacist-based anticoagulation services are associated with better therapeutic outcomes compared to those provided through usual care. The pharmacist-led group had better and statistically significant effects on the international normalized ratio (INR) control and lower incidence of bleeding, thromboembolism, hospitalization and overall mortality. Furthermore, pharmacy-managed anticoagulation is cost effective and yield better patients satisfaction 
Nigerian Journal of Civil Engineering Warfarin anticoagulant therapy can be managed safely and effectively by clinical pharmacist. The potential economic benefits and patient’s satisfaction associated with pharmacist-managed anticoagulation are substantial.
Nigerian Journal of Conservation Biology Histamine is a naturally occurring chemical that stimulates cells in the stomach to produce acid. It was synthesized in 1907 and found to be a natural constituent in mammalian tissues. H1H2, H3 are the three types of histamine receptors.
Nigerian Journal of Critical Care and Injury The H2 receptor antagonists are a class of drugs used to block the action of histamine on parietal cells in the stomach decreasing the production of acid by these cells.
Nigerian Journal of Cytokine H2-blocker maintenance therapy is cost-effective and is associated with significantly less morbidity. H1 receptors mediate on smooth muscle leading to vasodilation, H2 receptors mediate histamine stimulation of gastric acid secretion and H1 receptors feedback inhibitors in CNS, gastric acid secretion, lungs.
Nigerian Journal of Diabetes and Health The H2 antagonists offer several advantages over antacids, including longer duration of action (6-10 hours vs 1-2 hrs for antacids), greater efficacy, and ability to use prophylactically before meals to reduce the chance of heartburn occurring.

Nigerian Journal of Drug Discovery & Therapeutics They are used for the treatment of symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and for the treatment of esophagitis they have also been used in combination with antibiotics for the treatment of peptic ulcers.
Nigerian Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat In over-the-counter (OTC) strengths, these medicines are used to relieve and/or prevent heartburn, acid indigestion and sour stomach. This review focuses the current data on clinical pharmacology, therapeutic indications and results of the H2 receptor antagonist drugs like Cimetidine, Ranitidine, Famotidine, Nizatidine.
Nigerian Journal of Emergency Surgery This review throws an insight to inception of the H2 receptor antagonists and its progressive growth towards the repression of acid secretion.
Nigerian Journal of Epidemiology and Health A microwave assisted rapid synthesis of 5-[4-acetyl-5-(aryl-5-methyl -4,5- dihydro -1,3,4 -oxadiazol-2-yl] -4-(subustituted aryl)-6-methyl-3, 4-dihydropyrimidin - 2(1H) - one/ thione derivatives ( IVa-f) has been achieved from IIIa-f  by reaction with acetic anhydride and silica gel. The Compound I (a-f) has been synthesized by Hansch method followed by hydrazine hydrate in methanol gave IIa-f which on treated with acetophenone in glacial acetic acid afforded N-Phenylethylidene (6-methyl-2-oxo/thioxo-4-substituted phenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimido hydrazides (IIIa-f) under the microwave radiation in lesser time with higher yields.
Nigerian Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer The structures of the synthesised compounds have been elucidated on the basis of spectral (1H NMR, IR, Mass) and elemental analysis. In the present study aimed to synthesize novel oxadiazole derivatives with pyrimidine moiety by microwave irradiation
Nigerian Journal of Interferon Ricinus communis is commonly known as castor oil
plant belonging to family Euphorbiaceae.
Nigerian Journal of Law, Crime, Justice and Policy It is now widely cultivated in drier areas of the tropics and subtropics and in many temperature areas with a hot summer. The castor seed yield oil which is generally used in industry and medicines. The leaves of castor are used to treat skin diseases.
Nigerian Journal of Mechanical Engineering The whole plant is recommended in the treatment of facial paralysis, joint pains, wounds and constipation. Although this plant is very commonly found and are frequently available but leaves of some plant drugs   have close similarities with it.
Nigerian Journal of Microbiology For proper utilization of this plant as medicine, correct identification of plant source is also very important. This study deals with the standardization using Pharmacognostical evaluations which provides main information regarding the proper identification of the crude drug.
Nigerian Journal of Neurology The evaluations are macro and microscopic studies, phyto chemical screening, physico chemical parameters and florescence analysis were performed. The pharmacognostical parameters are main criteria for confirmation of the identity and determination of quality and purity of the crude drugs.
Nigerian Journal of Nursing Methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Boerhaavia diffusa, Asparagus racemosus and Sida cordifolia plants were prepared and screened for their phytochemical components. They were tested for their antimicrobial activity against five fish bacterial pathogens viz Aeromonas hydrophila, Flavobacterium branchiophilum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Edwardsiella tarda and Yersinia ruckeri.
Nigerian Journal of Parasitology These pathogens were found to be responsible for causing mass mortalities in fish culture ponds from Andhra Pradesh. Among the three solvent extracts tested, ethanol extract of Boerhaavia diffusa showed most significant result when compared to other two plant extract.
Nigerian Journal of Parkinson's Disease Ophthalmic drug delivery is one of the most interesting and challenging endeavours facing the pharmaceutical scientist. Poor bioavailability of drugs from ocular dosage form is mainly due to the tear production, non-productive absorption, transient residence time, and impermeability of corneal epithelium..
Nigerian Journal of Pathology Conventional preparations require frequent instillation and long term use of such preparations and can cause ocular surface disorders. Proniosomes were prepared by coacervation phase separation technique which reduces the frequency of administration of eye gel and showed improved pre corneal residence time in the treatment of glaucoma.
Nigerian Journal of Pediatrics Vesicle size of TMS 9 and was found to be 2403.0 nm highest among all formulation. The entrapment efficiency and release rate was found to be maximum for TMS 5; 99.2 and 91.8. In vitro release of formulation TMS 5 was near to the theoretical release profile; the F1 and F2 were 9;68. Korsmeyer peppas plot slope revealed the fact that the drug release follows Non-fickian transport diffusion. Stability studies for TMS 5 was more promising at 4° C with high retention value even at fourth week. The results are very encouraging and suggest that niosomes can act as promising carriers offering an alternative approach for ophthalmic delivery of timolol maleate
Nigerian Journal of Pesticide  Context: A clear understanding of the root canal anatomy is a prerequisite for conventional endodontic procedures. One method to enhance visualization of the root canal anatomy is the use of radiopaque contrast dye with good wettablility and flow. This depends on its property of surface tension.
Nigerian Journal of Photocatalysis the objective of the study was to assess the surface tension of two radiopaque dyes Iohexol and Iopamidol with the addition of surfactants tween 80 and sodium laurly sulphate to increase their wettability and reduce the surface tension.
Nigerian Journal of Planning and Architecture Preparations were made of the dyes alone, dyes with 0.5% sodium laurly sulphate and with 0.5% tween 80. The surface tension was measured using Traube,s stalagmometer Results Pure Iohexol and Iopamidol had similar surface tensions, Both tween 80 and Sodium laurly sulphate caused significant reduction in surface tension with sodium laurly sulphate being the better surfactant of the two . Iohexol showed greater reduction in surface tension than Iopamidol on addition of sodium laurly sulphate.
Nigerian Journal of Polymer Addition of surfactants can reduce the surface tension and hence improve the wettability and flow of radiopaque dyes.
Nigerian Journal of Polymer Purpose: The leaves of Sansevieria roxburghiana have been said to have antimicrobial activity. The whole plant is used as cardiotonic, expectorant, febrifuge, purgative, tonic and for other purposes. This plant predominantly occurs in eastern coastal regions of India also in Sri Lanka, Indonesia and tropical Africa. Since bio-activity of rhizomes of
Nigerian Journal of Poultry Sansevieria roxburghiana has not been explored earlier, an effort was made to investigate the antimicrobial effect of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of S. roxburghiana.
Nigerian Journal of Proteomics The rhizomes were collected, washed, dried in shade, powdered and exhaustively extracted by maceration with ethanol (95%) for three days. After three days, ethanol layer was decanted off, the solvent was distilled off and then concentrated to dryness.
Nigerian Journal of Psychiatry The antimicrobial screening by Well Diffusion and Tube Dilution Method was carried out against 5 bacterial strains- Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimrium and 2 fungal strains. Result: The ethanolic extract was found to have significant activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and significant antifungal activity against Claviceps purpurea and no activity against Aspergillus niger. It was also observed that as the concentration of the ethanolic extract of the rhizomes of S. roxburghiana increased, there was significant inhibition seen in the growth of bacterial cultures. Thus the results indicated that the ethanolic extract showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity, showed significant antifungal activity against Claviceps purpurea and no activity against Aspergillus niger.
Nigerian Journal of Public Administration  The aim of this work was to study the effectiveness of different levels of flavonoids on sun protection factors (SPF).
Nigerian Journal of Soil Science The optimal extraction condition based on the total flavonoid content and sun protection factor was estimated using the factorial design. The model equation was derived from the
experimental data provided the most fit which coefficient of determination (higher than 0.84). The most significant factor of the extraction based on the total flavonoid content and sun protection factor was the percentage of ethanol. In addition, this work demonstrated.
Nigerian Journal of Surgery The significance of the amount of flavonoids on SPF. Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.815 revealed the strength of a linear relationship between total flavonoids and SPF values. The highest amount of total flavonoids of the extracts was 26.16 ± 0.12 mg per gram rutin. The highest sun protection factor of the A. catechu sunscreen gel was 14.02 ± 0.02. A 3.5 improvement in SPF was obtained under the different extraction conditions. Eventually, the results represented that A. catechu was applicable for being a great candidate for applying in sunscreen products.
Nigerian Journal of Taxonomy Photocatalysis, a part of advanced oxidation technology is considered as a promising technology for waste water treatment. In the present work attempt is made to degrade a dye Azure B using Barium Yttrium tungsten Oxide, as a photocatalyst.
Nigerian Journal of Travel and Tourism Effect of various rate affecting parameters like pH, concentration of dye, amount of semiconductor, intensity of light etc. have been investigated. The rate is monitored spectrophotometrically and on the basis of observed data, a tentative mechanism has been proposed which proves the reaction to be a photocatalytic one.
Nigerian Journal of Tropical Diseases Optimum conditions (pH 7.3, concentration of the dye 5×10-6M, amount of semiconductor 0.12, light intensity 37mW/cm2) for maximum degradation are extracted. The kinetic study suggests that the reaction follows pseudo-first order rate law. Formation of nontoxic degraded products like NO2, CO2, H2O etc. make the process of immense importance. Participation of OH free radical is confirmed by use of scavenger.
Nigerian Journal of Water Research The process is found beneficial for cleaning the hazards from environment that too in an eco friendly manner as it uses solar light and the semiconductor is in heterogeneous phase and is recovered back for further studies.
Nigerian Journal on Emergency Medicine Photocatalysis, a part of advanced oxidation technology is considered as a promising technology for waste water treatment. In the present work attempt is made to degrade a dye Azure B using Barium Yttrium tungsten Oxide, as a photocatalyst.
Nigerian Journal on Trauma Effect of various rate affecting parameters like pH, concentration of dye, amount of semiconductor, intensity of light etc. have been investigated. The rate is monitored spectrophotometrically and on the basis of observed data, a tentative mechanism has been proposed which proves the reaction to be a photocatalytic one. Optimum conditions (pH 7.3, concentration of the dye 5×10-6M, amount of semiconductor 0.12, light intensity 37mW/cm2) for maximum degradation are extracted.
Nocardiosis Journal The kinetic study suggests that the reaction follows pseudo-first order rate law. Formation of nontoxic degraded products like NO2, CO2, H2O etc. make the process of immense importance. Participation of OH free radical is confirmed by use of scavenger. The process is found beneficial for cleaning the hazards from environment that too in an eco friendly manner as it uses solar light and the semiconductor is in heterogeneous phase and is recovered back for further studies.

Occupational Health Journal Visible light active photocatalysts are much sought after due to possibility of development of efficient and less expensive photoreactors for environmental applications.
Onchocerciasis Journal We prepared a visible light active photocatalyst, polyaniline-TiO2 (PANI-TiO2) nanocomposite, using in-situ polymerisation method.
Oral Cavity Cancer Journal It was characterized using photocatalytic activity of the PANI-TiO2 nanocomposite was tested for photo degradation of Reactive Blue 4 (RB-4) using visible (100 W tungsten-halogen lamp) as well as UV lamp (125 W). The PANI/TiO2 nanocomposites having thin layers of PANI (~1 nm) polymerized on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles (~30 nm) were obtained.
Ovarian Cancer Journal The nanocomposite displayed remarkable photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation (% RB-4 removal efficiency ³ 92; % TOC removal ³ 50). About 15 times greater rate constant for the reaction under visible light (5.23 × 10-2 min-1) was obtained compared to the rate constant with TiO2 (k = 3.5 ´ 10-3 min-1).
Pathophysiology of Common Diseases Journal The kinetic and morphological data were discussed in the light of the reported data for PANI/TiO2 materials produced earlier by different methods.  On the basis of such comparison, a PANI/TiO2 in which TiO2nanoparticles are deposited on polyaniline could be inferred to have higher photo activity over the other forms.
Penile Cancer Journal This study examined the effects of long-term storage on the photocatalytic effect of titanium dioxide coating films. Commercial pure Ti discs were coated with TiO2 at thicknesses of 1, 2, and 3 μm using a peroxotitanium acid solution. After ultraviolet irradiation for 12 or 24 h, discs were stored in sterile packages.
Pertussis Journal Disc hydrophilic changes were determined by measuring the water contact angles at 0–12 h and 1, 3, and 7 days after UV irradiation. In group A (Fresh disk), new discs were removed from sterile package for each measurement, while in group B (Old disk), new discs were removed only for the first measurement; subsequent measurements were made using the same discs.
Pharmaceutical Analysis Biological responses to discs were evaluated by the growth of human fibroblasts. A TiOfilm can prevent the deterioration of the catalytic effect of Ti discs when protected from light after UV irradiation.
Pharmaceutical Analysis Journal classical Molecular Biology technique known as Two-Hybrid System is used to detect protein-protein interactions in vivo.
Pharmaceutical Chemistry With the application of this technique, one can study proteins that are crucial for virtually all cellular processes and thereby establish structure-function relationships.
Pharmaceutical Chemistry The two-hybrid system was initially developed using yeast as a host organism. Bacterial two-hybrid systems have also become common laboratory tools and preferred in some circumstances, although yeast and bacterial two-hybrid systems have never been directly compared.  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal We describe here the development of unified yeast and bacterial two-hybrid (YBTH) system in which a single bait expression plasmid is used in both organismal milieus. There are various applications, refinements of these systems which are also described in this paper. Also the screening of peptide library can be an additional advantage of this technique. Thus this paper gives a comprehensive review of Two-Hybrid system.

Pharmaceutical Industrial Management Journal Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the intracellular bacterium Gram negative coccobacillus Coxiella burnetii, belonging to the Legionellalesorder, Coxiellaceae family with a worldwide occurrence.
Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence & Ethics Journal The patients most at risk of developing   chronic Q fever are thought to be those with cardiac or vascular grafts, pregnant women and patients with immune deficiencies. It is associated with Coxiella burnetii Entamoeba histolytica (CbhE) protein.
Pharmaceutical Microbiology Journal The amino acid sequence in FASTA format of   protein Coxiella burnetii Entamoeba histolytica (CbhE) was retrieved from NCBI. Protein was modelled by CPH server and then the modelled protein was validated by using Saves server.
Pharmaceutical Technology Journal Insilco potential drug target identification involves chemical compounds for inhibiting or promoting chemical reactions in living organisms, computational methods   are needed for screening through large databases of these to identify a inhibitor   for receptor Coxiella burnetii Entamoeba histolytica (CbhE).
Pharmaceutics This validated structure of Coxiella burnetii Entamoeba histolytica (CbhE) was employed for docking. Known inhibitor taken from the literature was docked at the binding site. Obtain molecule Minocin oral, Oxytetracycline, Doxycycline, Minocycline, TNF (Amrinone), Febrifugine, Curcumin and Epicatechin-3-gallate had given score of -165.483 kcal/mol , -200.895 kcal/mol , -166.096 kcal/mol, -168.33 kcal/mol, -124.51 kcal/mol, -171.917 kcal/mol, -158.399 kcal/mol, -162.687 kcal/mol. Further the zinc analog (ZINC ID 03870414) selected having the best moldock score -185.669 Kcal/mol after the comparison between the   docking results was similar in structure to Epicatechin-3-gallate.


Pharmaceutics Journa l The latest U.S. census data show that the Hispanic White person has a statistically longer life than the Non-Hispanic White person. 
Pharmacognosy However, the Hispanic White person is also poorer; hence, the ‘Hispanic Paradox’. The objective of this paper is to show that the better nutritional practices of the Hispanic White population in the USA contribute to the longer life expectancy of the Hispanic White population, as compared to the Non-Hispanic White population.
Pharmacognosy Journal A previous published work indicated strong linkages between the absence of natural phytochemicals in the diet of the Western man in the world and higher rates of prostate cancer.   Literature is replete with evidence that phytochemicals are essential for a healthy, immune body.
Pharmacology Books and Journal The previously published work had shown the perspective that certain common foods are essential for good health. It is clear when examining the world data in the published works that wealth does not necessary equate to health, when it comes to cancer.  
Photon Foundation The positive outcome of the current paper is to show that the conclusion drawn here may be the most promising one to pursue via educational programs about nutrition and health, out of the many possibilities put forth by experts in related fields.
Photon Journal  Reproductive surgeries before menopause may affect a woman's breast cancer risk by altering her cumulative exposure to ovarian hormones which lead to elevated levels of endogenous hormones, as they have been associated with the risk of breast cancer. Our aim was to investigate these relations in a case–control study to determine their correlation with breast cancer.
Photon Journal of Anesthesia Blood samples collected from postmenopausal females (150 breast cancer patients, 100 controls). Plasma estradiol and progesterone levels were estimated by kit method.  Demographic and clinical data were collected from the medical records as well as by direct interviewing the patients and controls in a structured questionnaire.
Photon Journal of Microbiology Tubectomy was observed in 70% of breast cancer patients (p= 0.0001). The serum estrogen levels in 60% breast cancer patients were elevated (p=0.0002). Similarly elevated serum progesterone levels were found in 80% of patients (p= 0.0001). The status of ER/PR, type, stage and grade of breast cancer, were used for correlation evaluations.
Photon Journal of Neurology We observed a statistically significant and direct correlation between breast cancer and elevated levels of estrogen and progesterone due to tubectomy. Based on correlational studies we could predict the chances of breast cancer in normal women who underwent tubectomy.
Photon Journal of Pathology There has been resurgence of interest in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BCNT) in recent years as a safe and successful manner in cancer treatments. BNCT is a biologically targeted from a
radiotherapy, which exploits the ability of non-radioactive isotope 10B to capture thermal neutrons with high probability leading to the reaction 7Li(p,n)7Be.
Plague Journal This reaction produces 478 KeV gamma-rays, 4He particles and 7Li recoil ions, the latter two having high energy transfer properties and high relative biological effectiveness relative to photon irradiation with very short range not exceeds the diameter of the infected cell.
Pneumonia Journal Nowadays, rather than reactors, accelerators can be used to deliver fast neutrons that may be attenuated using fission convertor in order to get the suitable neutron energy for BNCT facility.  
Prostate Cancer Journal MCNP5 was used to simulate the Egyptian accelerator that may be used in this application. Many trials have been carried out to get the suited epi-thermal neutrons that must be delivered to satisfy BNCT process. Also this code can be used to simulate the human head with the tumor inside with different sizes and at different depth. Some regulatory aspects have to be satisfied for safety; these regulatory aspects were discussed in detail in this study.
Salivary Gland Cancer Journal Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasm, representing 1% of all cancers worldwide. Histologically, cases can be classified as differentiated (DTC), medullary (MTC) or anaplasic (ATC) carcinomas.
Schistosomiasis Journal DTC and MTC make up more than 98% of all thyroid malignancies. For DTC and MTC, outcomes are generally favourable, although 30% of patients present local and/or distant metastasis despite surgery and radioiodine treatment.
Side Effects of Antibiotics Patient response to commonly used systemic chemotherapies has generally been poor when present metastasis.
Skin Cancer Journal Based on the findings of molecular approaches, thyroid cancers have long been recognized as highly vascular tumors that overexpress vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Recently, the role of anti-VEGF targeted therapy has been thoroughly evaluated, producing very encouraging results in overall survival improvement and leading to the approval of this kind of therapies for clinical practice.
Sleeping Sickness Journal Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are currently considered the standard rational for first-line treatment after radioiodine refractory patients with locally advanced non-resectable or metastatic thyroid cancer.
Stomach Cancer Journal Esophageal cancer is cancer of the esophagus. It can occur anywhere along the tube, from the end of the throat all the way down to where the stomach begins.
Syllabus For Pharmacy Objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of physical characteristics, dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies that can act as risk factors in the prevalence of esophageal cancer.
Taeniasis Journal Study consist 60 subjects of both male and female with age range between 40 to 60 years old. Cases of patients with Esophageal Cancer were selected from the Department of Radiotherapy, Government General Hospital, Guntur.
Testicular cancer Journal Another 20 healthy subjects were selected as a control group. Anthropometric measurements, dietary consumption pattern and nutrient intakes were undertaken.
The Journal for Cardiology There were highly significant differences at P value 0.001 in weight and BMI between the selected cases and control group.
The Journal for Cell Biology This study results revealed nutritional deficiencies in the selected cases in comparison with control group. Consumption of tobacco in the form of smoking, betel nut chewing, consumption of very hot beverages, spicy foods more specifically red chilli, lower consumption of macro & micro nutrients are the factors responsible for predisposing of Esophageal Cancer in South India.
The Journal for Dentistry The acyclic carotenoid lycopene has drawn considerable interest in recent years due to its beneficial effects on
human health.
The Journal for Endocrinology and Metabolism Tomato and tomato based products provides nearly 80% of the lycopene sources of our daily diet. Though research shows that bioavailability of lycopene increases in cooked tomatoes but the highly reactive, electron-rich carotenoid molecule also suffers oxidation under food processes and storage conditions resulting undesirable loss.
The Journal for Haematology The study investigates the bioavailability and retention of lycopene under different domestic cooking   and storage procedures with mashed tomatoes. Apart from domestic usage, the study also investigates the Hormetic effect using uv-longwave radiation on mashed tomatoes for commercial use of tomato puree based product.
The Journal for Horticulture The study reveals that lycopene content is much higher in dried tomato paste rather than raw unprocessed tomatoes. Storage of the dried tomato puree is ideal at room temperature rather than in a refrigerated condition.
The Journal for Immunology Boiling causes loss of most of the lycopene present, whereas cooking in microwave can retain 2319.08 ppm of lycopene. Hormetic effect using uv-longwave radiation on tomato paste showed a remarkable increase in lycopene content after 6 hours of exposure (4339.37ppm) along with balanced cis-trans ratio.
The Journal for Nanotechnology A total of 2.4 million men and women are employed in Garment industries of Bangladesh. Among   them a remarkable number is lean and thin.
The Journal for Threatened Taxa accordingly, the present study was aimed to find out the anthropometric status and dietary practices in adult of garments labors.
The Journal for Urology  This cross sectional study was conducted on 317 garment workers. All anthropometric data were collected by standard techniques. Dietary intake was taken by 24hr recall method and nutrient content of each food item was estimated. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS windows 16.
The Journal for Virology  Among the participants 26% male and 41% female were underweighted, 18% male and 8% female were over weighted and only 4% male and 2% female were obese. According to the measurement of Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) of the participants 24% male and 35% female were undernourished. So far as skinfolds are concerned, man also had significantly greater mean values than women for all skinfolds. Significant association was found between Body Mass Index (BMI) and energy intake (r = 0.616, p=<0 .001="" all="" and="" conclusion:="" dietary="" garment="" garments="" intake="" is="" labor.="" labors="" not="" nutritional="" of="" pattern="" satisfactory.="" span="" status="" the="">
The Journal of Anatomy     Mulligan mobilization, Cyriax physiotherapy and Eccentric training program are the technique used in patients with lateral epicondylitis. There is limited evidence for the comparison of these three treatment technique in patient with lateral epicondylitis.
The Journal of Applied Biochemistry To see the effect of Mulligan mobilization, Cyriax physiotherapy, and Eccentric training in improving Pain, Grip strength and Functional status in patients with lateral epicondylitis.
The Journal of Biodiversity  30 patients were randomly assigned to receive either Mulligan mobilisation, Cyriax physiotherapy and Eccentric training program. Pain, grip strength and functional evaluation were taken at baseline, post treatment in all groups.
The Journal of Bioprocess Technology  In all the groups significant improvement occurred in NPRS score, grip strength and PRTEES. However there was a significant difference seen in NPRS score, grip strength and PRTEES  in between groups analysis.
The Journal of Chemical Science All treatment methods the Mulligan mobilization, Cyriax physiotherapy and Eccentric training program were found to be effective in reducing pain, increased grip strength and improved functional status. However the subjects   treated with mulligan mobilization showed better results compared to the other groups.
The Journal of Chest Disease and Tuberculosis Silk has played a vital role in the history of human civilization ever since its discovery 4,000 years ago. It occupies an important place among all fabrics and is the “Queen of Textiles”.
The Journal of Ecology Silk has been intermingled with the life and culture of the Indians. Sericulture, is an art and technique of silk production, is an ancient industry in India which is the second largest producing country in the world next to China.

The Journal of Economics India    has the unique distinction of being the only country in the world bestowed by nature with all the varieties of silk namely: mulberry, tasar, oak tasar, eri and muga. The production of silk plays a major role in the economy of India as it is highly labour intensive and is a source of foreign exchange.
The Journal of Energy and Environmental Science Studies on knowledge and adoption levels of recommended organic manures by farmers and problems faced in adoption are crucial. Inorganic fertilizers reduced useful microbial population and soil properties apart from increased environmental pollution. Therefore, attempt was made to study the issue in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, to appraising the knowledge and adoption patterns of organic manures, to find out the relationship between the socio-economic factors with knowledge and adoption levels; and to identify the constraints.
The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine Results, based on interview conducted among 125 farmers revealed full (100%) knowledge on FYM and tank silt application and their adoption levels are low (67.5 - 72.5%).
The Journal of Food Technology Knowledge levels on compost, organic cakes, VCP and GM are high (60-73%) but their adoption levels are poor (21.5 - 26%). Knowledge on preparation/use of panchagavya is negligible (1.5%). Knowledge on seri-residue composting, biofertilizers, VAM, PSB and panchagavya is low (0 – 30%) and their adoption was meager (0 – 2.5%). Constraints for the above are lack of credit facilities, technical guidance, non-availability of organic fertilizers.
The Journal of Free Radicals and Antioxidants Education, extension contact, social participation, cattle population and cocoon yield were positively significant variables; family size and experience were negatively related with knowledge and adoption levels. It is concluded that the knowledge and adoption of organic manures  enhance quality and quantity of  mulberry, reducing cost of mulberry production,  protect environment; avoid pest and disease outbreaks; improve cocoon and silk quality which in turn fetches high price in the market.
The Journal of Genetics Implementation of cost-sharing practices in agricultural extension funding is a far cry in Nigeria’s public extension system despite its positive perception by stakeholders.
The Journal of Geography and Geology This is largely attributed to the perceived constraints associated with its possible practice and, as well as, the inability to identify the right strategies for its implementation.
The Journal of Humanities and Social Science This study assessed perceived factors that limit the implementation of cost-sharing practices and ascertained the preferences for strategies of cost-sharing implementation by farmers and public extension agents (PEAs) in Benue and Nasarawa States, Nigeria.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases A multistage sampling technique was employed to randomly select 346 respondents. Data were analyzed using frequency and percentage distribution and factor analysis. Both socio-economic and politico-cultural factors were perceived as possible threats to the implementation of cost-sharing practices.
The Journal of Journalism & Mass Communication          Many respondents preferred partial privatization as the most appropriate method for its implementation. Farmer education and knowledge play fundamental roles in socioeconomic, political and cultural values that entrench perceptual thresholds in social functionalism.
The Journal of Language and Literature These help to regulate the social, political and economic status of the society which will, in turn, organize behavior that will particularly provide the means for accomplishing the task of cost-sharing practices.
The Journal of Library and Information Science Antibiotic resistant strains have necessitated the need for the exploration and search of new and effective means of antimicrobials from natural sources.
The Journal of Materials Science This research aims at exploring insects for their antibacterial peptides production potentials. Spider venom was collected aseptically through the fang and antibacterial assay on Salmonella spp was carried out using disc impregnation method.
The Journal of Mathematics Fifteen cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) were inoculated in their abdomen with a pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli and the reduction in the number of bacterial load was monitored by plate culturing at time intervals of 3, 6, and 9 hours.
The Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology Cockroach responded and thwarted about 90% of the bacterial load inoculated into it after nine hours, while spider venom produced an average zone of inhibition of 16.5 mm on Salmonella spp and lost activity when denatured. Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used to analyse the volatile profile of the venom, heamolymph of the inoculated and non-inoculated cockroach. The analysis revealed that Methoxy-phenyl (0.90%), 2-aminopyridine (0.66%) and Phthalic acid (1.20%) were the three most important volatiles found in spider venom and oleic acid (19.99%) and glycerine (4.08%) were unique to inoculated cockroach. 
The Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery The production of compounds of medicinal importance such as 2-aminopyridine highlights the fact that insects may hold the key to solving the problem of drug resistance.
The Journal of Physics Plant mediated biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles is gaining importance due to it’s ecofriendliness and simplicity. In the present investigation ‘synthesis of silver  nonoparticles from leaf extracts of  Solanum torvum Swantz’. It was charecterized by using UV-spectrophotometer and SEM analysis.
The Journal of Physiology and Health It was also used to determine the antibacterial activity. Leaf extract was incubated with AgNO3 and colour change was observed as dark reddish brown colour. The presence of Ag nanoparticles was analysed between the wavelengths of 300-550 nm.
The Journal of Phytochemistry The size of the nanoparticles was determined by SEM analysis. The antimicrobial activity of leaf extract of Solanum torvum Swantz showed limited activity in E. coli and resistant to StaphylococcusLactobacillusPseudomonasSalmonella. In the silver nanoparticles from leaf exract showed limited activity in Pseudomonas and Salmonella and high activity was observed for Staphylococcus.
The Journal of Plant Pathology This study reveals that the silver nanoparticles from leaf extract shows better activity than the normal ethyl acetate extract. So in future it may be used as a multi drug resistant against pathogens.
The Journal of Plant Physiology Typhoid fever remains endemic in Khairpur Sindh Pakistan. In order to investigate the possibility of antibiotic resistance as a cause of this endemicity, present study was undertaken. S. enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) strains were isolated from clinical blood samples using standard microbiological techniques and API-20E. Sensitivity and MDR resistance patterns against major groups of antibiotics were obtained using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Out of 100 blood samples, 40 isolates (40%) were positive for Salmonella spp from which, 17 (42.5%) were identified as S. Typhi. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed resistance in 70 to 90% isolates and MDR pattern was NACTG (resistance to Nalidiixic acid, Ampicillin, Cephradine, Tetracycline, Gentamycin). It was detected that Nalidixic acid resistance did not provide as Flouroquinolone resistance indicator where negative correlation of Nalidixic acid with Ciprofloxacin was established (P< 0.0007).
The Journal of Public Health It appears that S. Typhi MDR strains have been circulating in District Khairpur Sindh Pakistan. MDR strains remain susceptible to Ciprofloxacin and third generation Cephalosporins (Ceftriaxone) and Monobatam (Aztreonam) appeared to be possible alternatives. national guideline on the proper usage of antibiotics and discontinuation of self medication and empirical therapy practices is required for urgent implementation to prevent possibility of encountering untreatable typhoid fever in future.
The Journal of Radiology Development of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic-induced diseases could tilt the scale towards preference for selecting Enterococci isolates from wara and tested for spectrum of their bacteriocin activity against pathogenic organisms in treating infections. 
The Journal of Sports and Physical Education Enterococci isolation, characterization and screening for bacteriocin production against pathogens were carried out. Effect of pH, temperature and enzymes on the bacteriocin activity was performed followed by the saftyassecement of the isolates.  E. mundtii and E. durans produced bacteriocins that had broad spectrum bacteriocin activity against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenesKlebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli.
The Journal of Toxicology and Health The bacteriocins were stable at acidic pH range (2-6) and temperature range of 40-100°C.
The Journal of Veterinary Science The bacteriocins were partly inactivated by trypsin while catalase and neutralization of pH had no effect on bacteriocin activity showing the proteineous nature of the metabolites.
Thin Layer Chromatography Journal All the isolates were negative to gelatinase and DNase but two of the isolates (E. durans EC7 and E. faecium EC12) showed incomplete hemolysis on blood agar and were susceptible to vancomycin indicating its safety. Bacteriocin from Enterococcus species could be of interest in preventing  infection acquired on the part of the consumers and could serves as potential protective agents to the society.
Throat Cancer Journal A series of 1,2,4-triazoles (PM4a-m) based on Mannich reaction were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis.
Thyroid cancer Journal The present study deals with newly synthesized 1,2,4-triazole derivatives (PM4a-m). Synthesized compounds PM4a-m were screened against In vitro antimicrobial and antitubercular activities. Compounds PM4d, PM4and PM4k exhibited promising antibacterial and antifungal activity, while compounds PM4b, PM4c, PM4d and PM4j showed good antitubercular activity if compared with standard drugs.
Trypanosomiasis Journal Antibiotic resistance and its association with plasmid profiling were investigated in 207 isolates of Klebsiella pneumonia. 91.3% isolates showed resistance to four or more antimicrobials. Second, third and fourth generation cephalosporins resistance were recorded as 36.2%, 75.4% and 31.9%. Non-cephalosporins category resistance varied from 44.4% to 84.5% with complete resistance to Ampicillin and sensitiveness to Imipenem and Meropenem emphasizing the need of making stringent policy of rational use of antimicrobials to prevent drug resistance and their toxic effect associated with their indiscriminate use before any uncontrolled situation of  drug resistance happens. In-vitro demonstration of different plasmid amplicon size were indicative of different antibiotic resistance as 23kb Plasmid  indicated  drug resistance to Ampicillin, 36kb to Augmentin, 110kb to 3rd generation Cephalosporin and Cefepime and  48kb plasmid to Cefoxitin and accordingly could be implemented as diagnostic markers in detection of resistance to various antimicrobial drugs
Urethral Cancer Journal Salmonella species are food borne pathogen and the leading causes of acute gastroenteritis in several countries.
Uterine Cancer Journal The situation is aggravated by the ever increasing rate of antimicrobial resistance strains. The study aimed to determine antibiogram Salmonella serovars isolated from food of bovine origin. A total of 384 of milk (n1=192) and meat samples (n2=192) were collected from selected Woredas of Tigray, Ethiopia. The samples were pre-enriched with buffered peptone water and incubated at 37° C for 18 hrs. Aliquots were inoculated into Selenite-Cysteine broth.
Vaginal Cancer Journal A  loopful of
broth was streaked on Brilliant Green agar. Then sub-cultured on Biolog Universal Growth Agar. The bacteria were further identified by BiOLOG identification system. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serovars was done by disk diffusion using twelve antimicrobials and ranges for minimum inhibitory concentration were determined.
What is Antibiotic Resistance The study revealed that out of 384 samples, S. typhimurium 40 (10.4%), S. enteritidis 33 (5.7%) and S. newport 1 (0.2%) were isolated. Antibiogram of the isolates (n=63) revealed high resistance to cephalothin (74.6%), Chloroamphenicol (71.4%), tetracycline (74.6%), gentamicin(54%) whereas low resistance to sulphoxazole-trimethoprim(17.5%),   Neomycin(17.5%), streptomycin(27%), Kanamycin(25.4%), Ciprofloxacin(11.1%), Nitrofurantoine(4.8%), Norfloxon(7.9%), and Ciftriaxone (15.9 %).
What is Antimicrobial Resistance Multidrug resistance observed in (71.4%) of Salmonella serovars. The study reveals Salmonella serotypes originating from food of bovine origin and its multi-drug resistance. This poses a concern to design prevention and control methods











Certificate Program-2016 in Dentistry 

Applications are invited each month for Certificate Program-2016 in Dentistry authorized by The Journal for Dentistry. Qualification: Applicants must have published at least 2 research articles in peer reviewed international journals / Patents, can enrol for the certificate program. Certificate Program is designed to cater Grade Promotion, recruitment, Funding, Tenure Extension, Fellowship, admission and appointments. Applicants should submit 2 scientific contributions, published at any International Journal of repute/ Patents to : photonjournal@yahoo.com as attachment to qualify for Certificate Program. Participants will be recognized as Resource Person/ Recognized Expert in concerned field/ Techniques. Teaching Faculties and Scientists can also enrol for Refresher Course. The last date is 31 December, 2016.

International Conference on Dentistry-2016 (Webinar)

Participants can join the Conference (Webinar) each month on related contents. Submit your Paper / Abstracts to present at Webinar before the end of each month at: photonjournal@yahoo.com as attachment. The participants will be recognized with Certificates.

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Teenage son of Australian mother fighting for life

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Two Die After 'Car Travels Wrong Way' On M1 Road

Secrets: Rupert Murdoch smells India's property market (Real Estate)

Hungary TV camera woman warm welcomes refugee with kicks to Children and Men
             
















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